O concurso As 7 maravilhas portuguesas no mundo ignora a histуria da escravidгo e do trбfico atlвntico sign now

(ENGLISH FOLLOWS)
O concurso As 7 maravilhas portuguesas no mundo ignora a histуria da escravidгo e do trбfico atlвntico

Hб mais ou menos vinte anos, vбrios paнses europeus, americanos e africanos vкm afirmando a memуria dolorosa do comйrcio de africanos escravizados e valorizando o patrimфnio que lhe й associado. Essa valorizaзгo se traduziu nгo somente na publicaзгo de um grande nъmero de obras historiogrбficas, mas tambйm se expressou na realizaзгo de projetos como A Rota do Escravo iniciado pela UNESCO em 1994.

Apesar das dificuldades e das lutas polнticas que envolveram a emergкncia da memуria do passado escravista das naзхes europeias, americanas e africanas, de dez anos para cб a memуria e a histуria do comйrcio atlвntico passaram a fazer parte da memуria pъblica de muitos paнses nos trкs continentes circundando o Atlвntico. Em 2001, atravйs da Lei Taubira, a Franзa foi o primeiro paнs a reconhecer a escravidгo e o trбfico atlвntico como crimes contra a humanidade. Tambйm na Franзa, o 10 de Maio й doravante dia nacional de comemoraзгo das memуrias do trбfico negreiro, da escravatura e das suas aboliзхes. Em 2001, em Durban na Бfrica do Sul, a Terceira Conferкncia da ONU contra o racismo inscreveu em suas declaraзхes finais a escravidгo como crime contra a humanidade. Em 1992, na Casa dos Escravos na Ilha de Gorйe no Senegal, o Papa Joгo Paulo II expressou suas desculpas pelo papel desempenhado pela Igreja Catуlica durante o trбfico atlвntico. Bill Clinton, George W. Bush, e o prуprio Presidente do Brasil, Luis Inбcio Lula da Silva, condenaram publicamente a participaзгo passada de seus paнses no comйrcio atlвntico de africanos escravizados. Em 2006, Michaelle Jean, governadora geral do Canadб, escolheu o Castelo de Elmina em Gana para denunciar passado escravista. Em 2007, durante as comemoraзхes do aniversбrio de duzentos anos da aboliзгo do trбfico de escravos pela Inglaterra, foi a vez do ministro Tony Blair expressar publicamente seu profundo pesar pelo papel da Grг-Bretanha no comйrcio de africanos escravizados.

Em pleno ano de 2009, o governo de Portugal e instituiзхes portuguesas como a Universidade de Coimbra, escolheram um caminho oposto ao descrito acima. No primeiro semestre desse ano essas instituiзхes apoiaram a realizaзгo de um concurso para escolher as Sete Maravilhas Portuguesas no Mundo. Na lista das Sete Maravilhas a serem votadas pelo pъblico na internet (http://www.7maravilhas.sapo.pt), constam nгo somente o Castelo Sгo Jorge da Mina (Elmina), entreposto comercial fundado pelos portugueses em 1482, mas tambйm a Cidade Velha (Ribeira Grande) na Ilha de Santiago em Cabo Verde, alйm de Luanda e da Ilha de Moзambique. Ao descrever esses sнtios, a organizaзгo do concurso optou por omitir o uso desses lugares para o comйrcio de escravos. No texto descrevendo o Castelo Sгo Jorge da Mina ou Elmina chegou-se ao cъmulo de afirmar que aquele local foi entreposto de escravos somente a partir da ocupaзгo holandesa em 1637.

Para ser fiel а histуria e moralmente responsбvel, consideramos que a inclusгo desses monumentos no dito concurso deveria ser acompanhada de informaзхes completas sobre o papel deles no trбfico atlвntico, assim como sobre seu uso atual. O Castelo de Sгo Jorge da Mina ou Elmina, por exemplo, й hoje um museu que tenta retratar a histуria do trбfico. Trata-se de um lugar visitado por milhares de turistas de todo o mundo, entre os quais muitos representantes da diбspora africana que buscam ali prestar homenagem a seus ancestrais. O governo portuguкs, as instituiзхes que apуiam o concurso e sua organizaзгo ignoraram a dor daqueles que tiveram seus antepassados deportados desses entrepostos comerciais e muitas vezes ali mortos. Seria possнvel desvincular a arquitetura dessas construзхes do papel que elas tiveram no passado e que ainda tкm no presente enquanto lugares de memуria da imensa tragйdia que representou o trбfico transatlвntico e a escravidгo africana nas colфnias europйias ? Segundo as estimativas mais recentes (www.slavevoyages.org), Portugal e posteriormente sua ex-colфnia, o Brasil, foram juntos responsбveis por quase a metade dos 12 milhхes de cativos transportados atravйs do Atlвntico.

Em respeito а histуria e а memуria dos milhхes de vнtimas do trбfico atlвntico de escravos, viemos atravйs desta carta aberta repudiar a omissгo do papel que tiveram esses lugares no comйrcio atlвntico de africanos escravizados. Convidamos todos aqueles que tкm um compromisso com a pesquisa do trбfico atlвntico de escravos e da escravidгo a repudiar que essa histуria seja banalizada e apagada em prol da exaltaзгo de um passado portuguкs glorioso expresso na suposta "beleza" arquitetural de tais sнtios de morte e tragйdia.



Ana Lucia Araujo, Howard University, Washington DC, Estados Unidos
Arlindo Manuel Caldeira, professor, Centro de Histуria de Alйm-Mar, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Portugal
Mariana Pinho Candido, Princeton University, Princeton, Estados Unidos
Michel Cahen, CNRS, Centre dЙtudes de lAfrique, Bordeaux, Franзa
Christine Chivallon, CNRS, Centre dЙtudes de lAfrique, Bordeaux, Franзa
Myriam Cottias, CNRS, Diretora do Centre International de recherches sur les esclavages, Paris, Franзa
Hebe Mattos, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil
Maurice Jackson, Georgetown University, Washington, Estados Unidos
Hendrik Kraay, University of Calgary, Canadб
Jane Landers, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Estados Unidos
Jean-Marc Masseaut, Cahiers Anneaux de la Mйmoire, Nantes, Franзa
Claudia Mosquera Rosero-Labbй, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotб, Colombia
Joгo Josй Reis, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Brasil
Anna Seiderer, Museu Real da Бfrica Central, Tervuren, Bйlgica
Simгo Souindola, Historiador, Luanda, Angola
Jean-Michel Mabeko-Tali, Howard University, Washington, Estados Unidos

* * *

(French Follows)



The contest The Seven Portuguese Wonders ignored the history of slavery and the slave trade

About twenty years ago several European, American and African countries started affirming and promoting the painful memory and heritage of slavery and the Atlantic slave trade. The promotion of the slave past was translated not only by the publication of a large number of historical works but also by the development of projects as the Slave Route Project launched by UNESCO in 1994.

Over the last ten years, despite the difficulties and the fights involving the emergence of the memory of the slave past of European, American and African nations, the memory and the history of the Atlantic slave trade was integrated into the public memory of several countries in the three continents at both sides of the Atlantic. In 2001, through the Law Taubira, France was the first country to recognize slavery and the slave trade as crimes against humanity. Also in France, the May 10th is now the National Day of Commemoration of the Memories of the Slave Trade, Slavery and its Abolitions . In 2001, in Durban, South Africa, the Third Conference of the United Nations Against Racism declared slavery as crime against humanity . In 1992, at the House of Slaves in Gorйe Island (Senegal), the Pope John Paul II expressed his apologies for the role played by the Catholic Church in the period of the Atlantic slave trade. Visiting Africa, Bill Clinton, George W. Bush and the Brazilian President, Luis Inбcio Lula da Silva also condemned the wrongs of the slave past. In 2006, Michaelle Jean, Governor General of Canada, during a visit to Elmina Castle (a site participating in the contest) in Ghana, denounced the Atlantic slavery past. In 2007, during the commemorations of the 200th anniversary of the British abolition of the slave trade, the PM Tony Blair also expressed his deep sorrow for the role played by England in the Atlantic trade of enslaved Africans.

In 2009, the government of Portugal, and several Portuguese institutions as the University of Coimbra, chose the opposite path. During the first semester of this same year, these institutions supported the organization of a contest to choose the Seven Portuguese Wonders in the World. In the list of the sites to be voted by the public on Internet (http://www.7maravilhas.sapo.pt), one can found not only Elmina Castle (or Castle Sгo Jorge da Mina), a slave trading outpost and warehouse, founded by the Portuguese in 1482, but also the old city of Ribeira Grande of Santiago Island in Cape Verde, as well as Luanda and Mozambique Island. When describing these sites, the organization of the contest omitted the history of these places and the use they had during the period of the Atlantic slave trade. In the text describing the Elmina Castle, they affirm that this site served as slaves warehouse only after the Dutch occupation in1637.

In the name of historical accuracy and in order to be morally responsible, we consider that the inclusion of these monuments in such a contest should be followed by the full information about their role during the Atlantic slave trade, and also by an explanation about the present use of these sites. Presently, the Elmina or Sгo Jorge da Mina Castle, is a museum that tries to represent the history of the Atlantic slave trade. Each year, thousands of visitors from the whole world, among them many members of the African Diaspora, visit the castle to honor their ancestors. The Portuguese government, the institutions supporting the contest and its organizers ignored the pain of all those whose ancestors were deported from these sites or those who were raped or died there while waiting to be embarked. Is it possible to separate the architecture of these sites from the role they had in the past and still have in the present, as places of memory of the great tragedy that was slavery and the slave trade to the European colonies? According to recent studies (www.slavevoyages.org), Portugal and later Brazil, its former colony, were responsible for almost the half of the 12 million captives transported through the Atlantic.

In respect to the history and the memory of millions of victims of the Atlantic slave trade, we write this letter to denounce the omission of the role these sites had in the Atlantic slave trade. We invite all those who are concerned by the research on slavery and the Atlantic slave trade to disagree with the attempt to diminish and erase the history of this commerce, in order to exalt a glorious Portuguese past expressed in the architectural beauty of these sites of death and tragedy.



Ana Lucia Araujo, Howard University, Washington, United States
Arlindo Manuel Caldeira, CHAM, Lisboa, Portugal
Mariana Pinho Candido, Princeton University, Princeton, United States
Michel Cahen, Centre dЙtudes de lAfrique Noire, CNRS, Bordeaux, France
Christine Chivallon, Centre dЙtudes de lAfrique Noire, CNRS, Bordeaux, France
Myriam Cottias, CNRS, Directrice do Centre International de recherches sur les esclavages, Paris, France
Maurice Jackson, Georgetown University, Washington, United States
Hendrik Kraay, University of Calgary, Canada
Jane Landers, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, United States
Jean-Marc Masseaut, Cahiers Anneaux de la Mйmoire, Nantes, France
Hebe Mattos, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Claudia Mosquera Rosero-Labbй, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotб, Colombia
Joгo Josй Reis, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Brazil
Anna Seiderer, Royal Museum for Central Africa, Tervuren, Belgium
Simгo Souindola, Historien, Luanda, Angola
Jean-Michel Mabeko-Tali, Howard University, Washington, United States

* * *

Le concours Les 7 merveilles portugaises ignore lhistoire de lesclavage et de la traite transatlantique

Il y a environ vingt ans, plusieurs pays europйens, amйricains et africains, ont commencй а affirmer la mйmoire douloureuse de la traite des Africains mis en esclavage aux Amйriques et а mettre en valeur le patrimoine qui lui est liй. Cette mise en valeur fut traduite non seulement par la publication dun grand nombre douvrages historiographiques mais sexprima aussi par la mis en uvre de projets comme La Route de lEsclave initiй par lUNESCO en 1994.

Malgrй les difficultйs et les luttes ayant entourй lйmergence de la mйmoire du passй esclavagiste des nations europйennes, amйricaines et africaines, depuis dix ans, la mйmoire et lhistoire de la traite atlantique ont commencй а intйgrer la mйmoire publique de plusieurs pays dans les trois continents entourant lAtlantique. En 2001, par la loi Taubira, la France fut le premier pays а reconnaоtre lesclavage et la traite atlantique des esclaves comme crime contre lhumanitй. Aussi en France, le 10 mai est dйsormais Journйe Nationale de Commйmoration des Mйmoires de la traite nйgriиre, de lesclavage et de ses abolitions . En 2001, а Durban en Afrique du Sud, la Troisiиme Confйrence de lONU contre le racisme a inscrit dans ses dйclarations finales lesclavage en tant que crime contre lhumanitй . En 1992, а la Maison des esclaves dans lОle de Gorйe au Sйnйgal, le Pape Jean-Paul II a formulй des excuses pour le rфle jouй par lЙglise Catholique dans la traite transatlantique. En visite en Afrique, Bill Clinton, George W. Bush et le Prйsident du Brйsil Luis Inбcio Lula da Silva, ont condamnй les erreurs du passй esclavagiste. En 2006, Michaelle Jean, gouverneure gйnйrale du Canada, en visite au Fort Elmina (site qui fait partie du concours) au Ghana a dйnoncй le passй esclavagiste. En 2007, pendant les commйmorations de lanniversaire de deux-cents ans de labolition de la traite britannique, Tony Blair a exprimй son profond regret par le rфle jouй par la Grande-Bretagne dans le commerce atlantique dAfricains mis en esclavage.

En 2009, le gouvernement du Portugal e plusieurs institutions portugaises dont lUniversitй de Coimbra, ont choisi le chemin opposй а celui qui vient dкtre dйcrit. Au cours du premier semestre de cette mкme annйe, ces institutions ont appuyй la rйalisation dun concours en vue de choisir les Sept Merveilles Portugaises dans le Monde. Dans la liste des sites des merveilles а кtre йlues par le public sur Internet (http://www.7maravilhas.sapo.pt), on y trouve non seulement le Fort Sгo Jorge da Mina (ou Elmina) entrepфt commercial fondй par les Portugais en 1482, mais aussi la Vieille Ville (Ribeira Grande), Оle de Santiago au Cap Vert, ainsi que Luanda et lОle de Mozambique. En dйcrivant ces sites, lorganisation du concours a omis de sen remettre а lhistoire et de signaler lusage quavaient ces lieux pendant le commerce atlantique des esclaves. Dans le texte dйcrivant le Fort Elmina, on y affirme que ce site fut lentrepфt desclaves seulement aprиs loccupation hollandaise du site, а partir de 1637.

Pour кtre fidиles а lhistoire et moralement responsables, nous considйrons que linclusion de ces monuments dans un tel concours devrait кtre accompagnйe dinformations complиtes sur leur rфle dans le commerce atlantique, de mкme que sur son usage prйsent. Le Fort de Sгo Jorge da Mina ou Elmina, par exemple, est aujourdhui un musйe qui essaie de reprйsenter lhistoire du commerce atlantique. Il sagit dun lieu visitй par des milliers de touristes du monde entier, parmi lesquels plusieurs reprйsentants de la diaspora africaine qui cherchent а y rendre hommage а leurs ancкtres. Le gouvernement portugais, les institutions qui appuient le concours et ses organisateurs ignorent la douleur de ceux dont les ancкtres furent dйportйs а partir de ces entrepфts commerciaux ou sont dйcйdйs sur place. Est-il possible denvisager de sйparer larchitecture de ces sites du rфle quils ont eu dans le passй et quils atlantique et lesclavage des Africains dans les colonies europйennes ? Daprиs des estimations rйcentes (www.slavevoyages.org), le Portugal, et plus tard son ex-colonie, le Brйsil, furent ensemble responsables pour presque la moitiй des 12 millions de captifs transportйs par lAtlantique.

Par respect face а lhistoire et а la mйmoire des millions de victimes de la traite atlantique des esclaves, nous venons par la prйsente dйnoncer lomission du rфle qui ont eu ces lieux dans le commerce atlantique dAfricains mis en esclavage. Nous invitons tous ceux et celles qui sont concernйs par la recherche sur le commerce atlantique des esclaves et sur lesclavage а manifester leur dйsaccord avec le fait que lhistoire de ce commerce soit banalisйe et effacй au profit de lexaltation dun passй portugais glorieux exprimй dans la beautй architecturale de tels sites de tragйdie.



Ana Lucia Araujo, Howard University, Washington, Йtats-Unis
Arlindo Manuel Caldeira, CHAM, Lisboa, Portugal
Mariana Pinho Candido, Princeton University, Princeton, Йtats-Unis
Michel Cahen, Centre dЙtudes de lAfrique Noire, CNRS, Bordeaux, France
Christine Chivallon, Centre dЙtudes de lAfrique Noire, CNRS, Bordeaux, France
Myriam Cottias, CNRS, Directrice do Centre International de recherches sur les esclavages, Paris, France
Maurice Jackson, Georgetown University, Washington, Йtats-Unis
Hendrik Kraay, University of Calgary, Canada
Jane Landers, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Йtats-Unis
Jean-Michel Mabeko-Tali, Howard University, Washington, Йtats-Unis
Jean-Marc Masseaut, Anneaux de la Mйmoire, Nantes, France
Hebe Mattos, Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, Brйsil
Claudia Mosquera Rosero-Labbй, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotб, Colombia
Joгo Josй Reis, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Salvador, Brйsil
Anna Seiderer, Musйe Royal de lAfrique Centrale, Tervure, Belgique
Simгo Souindola, Historien, Luanda, Angola




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Coleen AlvaradoBy:
Technology and the InternetIn:
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Governo Portuguкs

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